How do C2C12 cells differentiate?
Differentiation of C2C12 cells is achieved by replacing GM to differentiation media, DM [DMEM—high glucose no sodium pyruvate (Gibco), 2% horse serum (Gibco), 1% glutamine (Gibco), 1% pen/strep (Gibco)]. After 24 h in DM, fused cells should be visible. DM should be changed every 48 h.
What happens after the fusion of myoblasts?
Muscle fibers generally form through the fusion of precursor myoblasts into multinucleated fibers called myotubes. In the early development of an embryo, myoblasts can either proliferate, or differentiate into a myotube.
What is muscle differentiation?
Differentiation of skeletal muscle is a highly controlled, multistep process, during which single muscle cells initially freely divide and then align and fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This process of muscle differentiation in vivo is governed by a complex interplay of a wide range of growth and trophic factors.
Who discovered MyoD?
Harold M. Weintraub
MyoD, also known as myoblast determination protein 1, is a protein in animals that plays a major role in regulating muscle differentiation. MyoD, which was discovered in the laboratory of Harold M. Weintraub, belongs to a family of proteins known as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs).
What is a myoblast?
Definition of myoblast : an undifferentiated cell capable of giving rise to muscle cells.
What is the role of Myogenin in myogenesis?
Abstract. Growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle fibres depend on coordinated activation and return to quiescence of resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). The transcription factor Myogenin (Myog) regulates myocyte fusion during development, but its role in adult myogenesis remains unclear.
How myoblasts are converted into muscles?
In the presence of fibroblast growth factor, myoblasts fuse into multi-nucleated mytotubes, which form the basis of muscle tissue. Unused myoblasts dedifferentiate into myosatellite cells, which remain in the muscle fiber until needed to differentiate into new muscle cells when a muscle is damaged or stressed.
Is C2C12 a stem cell?
More recently, Nozaki et al. (2015) developed the C2C12 cell line from the BubR1 hypomorphic mouse model of accelerated-aging (Baker et al., 2008); these cells are characterized by a subpopulation of muscle stem cells expressing p16Ink4a (Nozaki et al., 2015).
What is C2C12 Myotube?
C2C12 myotubes express contractile proteins and, when left to differentiate for an extended period of time, can spontaneously contract. These properties make C2C12 cells an invaluable tool for understanding the molecular biology of muscle development. However, these cells do not perfectly mimic in vivo muscle fibers.
What are Myofibres?
myofibril, very fine contractile fibres, groups of which extend in parallel columns along the length of striated muscle fibres. The myofibrils are made up of thick and thin myofilaments, which help give the muscle its striped appearance.
How are myocytes formed?
Muscle cell differentiation begins with the conversion of mesodermal precursor cells into single-cell myoblasts, which then fuse to form myocytes. Further fusion of the myocytes produces multinucleate myotubes.