What is a p53 response element?
The canonical p53 response element (p53RE), which contains two repeats of a decamer motif “RRRCWWGYYY” separated by a spacer of 0 to 13 base-pairs, has been characterized as the regulatory region on the target genes that p53 binds for transcriptional activation.
What does p53 activation do?
Activation of p53 in response to DNA damage is associated with a rapid increase in its levels and with an increased ability of p53 to bind DNA and mediate transcriptional activation. This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair.
What is the target of p53?
p53 directly activates target genes that mediate various functions. Proteins encoded by p53 target genes function in multiple processes that include, but are not limited to, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, metabolism, autophagy, translation control and feedback mechanisms.
Which genes are activated by p53?
p53 is a potent activator of genes involved in cellular senescence, such as p21 and PAI-1, and p53-dependent activation of these genes has been shown to be a physiological, in vivo response to DNA damage events [35, 57–60]. Mutant knockin mice have also confirmed this arm of p53 function.
How does p53 prevent S phase entry?
The increase in the level of active p53 protein leads to an inhibition of entry into S-phase or the induction of apoptosis [2, 11, 12]. Thus, the loss or inactivation of p53 results in the loss of cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis after DNA damage or physiologic stresses.
How does p53 stop cell cycle?
Activated p53 can halt cell division in both the G1 and G2 phases of the cell division cycle. G1 is the preparation phase of the cell before replication of its DNA and G2 prepares the cell for mitosis.
How do I know if my p53 is activated?
p53 activation is monitored using an antibody that detects endogenous levels of p53 that have been phosphorylated on serine residue, 15. This antibody does not recognize p53 that has been phosphorylated on other sites. Phosphorylated p-53 (Ser15) levels are then normalized against total ERK1 protein levels.