What is a free-electron laser used for?
Most existing free-electron lasers operate at infrared wavelengths where the high-intensity picosecond pulses they produce are used to study principle excitations in condensed matter systems where it is possible to access the principal excitations such as plasmons, phonons, magnons, and inter-sub-band transitions.
How much does a free-electron laser cost?
Free electron lasers, which use a high-power laser to make X-rays with electrons, have been around for five years, but only a few exist. They cost $1 billion to build, they can be miles long, and they cost $100 million annually to operate.
Who invented the free-electron laser?
The first free-electron laser was developed by John Madey in 1971 at Stanford University utilizing technology developed by Hans Motz and his coworkers, who built an undulator at Stanford in 1953, using the wiggler magnetic configuration. Madey used a 43 MeV electron beam and 5 m long wiggler to amplify a signal.
How does a electron laser work?
To make bright pulses of light, a free electron laser starts with a bunch of electrons and accelerates them to nearly the speed of light. The electrons are then fed into an undulator or wiggler, a series of magnets that deflect the electrons causing them to radiate energy.
What is a free laser?
In a free-electron laser, high-energy electrons emit coherent radiation, as in a conventional laser, but the electrons travel through a vacuum instead of remaining in bound atomic states within the lasing medium.
What are electron beams used for?
Electron beams are used chiefly in research, technology, and medical therapy to produce X rays and images on television screens, oscilloscopes, and electron microscopes.
Is a laser an electron beam?
EB welding uses a finely focused stream or beam of electrons, whereas laser welding uses monochromatic coherent light (photons). In both cases, the kinetic energy of the electrons or photons is turned into heat energy when they hit the surface of the metal.
What files can LaserGRBL use?
LaserGRBL also support opening pictures and raster images in bmp, jpg, png and gif file format.
How does an XFEL work?
XFELs are like a cross between an X-ray microscope and a laser. They work by producing very intense pulses of light at an astonishingly fast rate – we’re talking between hundreds and tens of thousands of light pulses each second.
Can an electron beam hurt you?
An electron beam in air has the potential to be very lethal. An exposure to a cobalt60 steriliser of only a 60 seconds killed a technician trying to clear a jammed box of medical items on a conveyor belt in Israel.