What causes anorectal varices?
Anorectal varices are the dilation of collateral submucosal vessels due to backflow in the veins of the rectum. Typically this occurs due to portal hypertension which shunts venous blood from the portal system through the portosystemic anastomosis present at this site into the systemic venous system.
Are varices and hemorrhoids the same?
Hemorrhoids result when rectal veins enlarge. Varicose veins occur when veins of the legs swell. Many changes in pregnancy can increase the risk of hemorrhoids and varicose veins, such as: Increased blood volume, which enlarges the veins.
What mixed hemorrhoids?
External hemorrhoids drain through the inferior rectal vein into the inferior vena cava. Rich anastomoses exist between these two and the middle rectal vein, connecting the portal and systemic circulations. Mixed hemorrhoids are confluent internal and external hemorrhoids.
What is varices of the esophagus?
Esophageal varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus). This condition occurs most often in people with serious liver diseases. Esophageal varices develop when normal blood flow to the liver is blocked by a clot or scar tissue in the liver.
What is portal hypertension signs and symptoms?
Symptoms and signs of portal hypertension include: Gastrointestinal bleeding: You may notice blood in the stools, or you may vomit blood if any large vessels around your stomach that developed due to portal hypertension rupture. Ascites: When fluid accumulates in your abdomen, causing swelling.
How long can you live with portal hypertension?
These complications result from portal hypertension and/or from liver insufficiency. The survival of both stages is markedly different with compensated patients having a median survival time of over 12 years compared to decompensated patients who survive less than 2 years (1, 3).
Can hemorrhoids affect your legs?
External hemorrhoids can be painful or itch and may bleed if irritated by straining or wiping. Varicose veins often appear as large blue veins on the legs. You may have mild swelling in your ankles and feet or feel aching, heaviness, or throbbing in your legs. You may also have leg cramps.
What is a hemorrhoidal plexus?
The hemorrhoidal plexus is a group of veins that surrounds the rectum. It has two parts, internal and external. The inferior rectal veins are located in the external hemorrhoidal plexus. They are surrounded by loose connective tissue, so they do not get much support or constraint from the body.
Where does the hemorrhoidal plexus drain into?
Related to Hemorrhoidal plexus: hemorrhoidal veins rec·tal ve·nous plex·us [TA] a venous plexus resting on the posterior and lateral walls of the rectum; it drains into the superior rectal vein to the portal, the middle rectal to the internal iliac, and the inferior rectal to the internal pudendal.
Why are the veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus so weak?
The veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus are contained in very loose connective tissue, so that they get less support from surrounding structures than most other veins, and are less capable of resisting increased blood-pressure . This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 676 of the 20th edition of Gray’s Anatomy (1918)
What is the rectal venous plexus?
Anatomical terminology. [edit on Wikidata] The rectal venous plexus (or hemorrhoidal plexus) surrounds the rectum, and communicates in front with the vesical venous plexus in the male, and the vaginal venous plexus in the female. A free communication between the portal and systemic venous systems is established through the rectal venous plexus.
What is the internal plexus of the anus?
Internal plexus. The internal plexus presents a series of dilated pouches which are arranged in a circle around the tube, immediately above the anal orifice, and are connected by transverse branches. This internal plexus is also known in some medical communities as the Irving plexus.