What are embryonic veins?
Three symmetric paired veins form the basis of the early venous system in the 4-week embryo (6 weeks’ menstrual age (MA)), draining into the heart: the umbilical veins (UVs), vitelline veins (VVs) and cardinal veins (CVs). The UVs drain the chorion, the VVs the yolk sac, and the CVs the body of the embryo.
What is KT disease?
Overview. Klippel-Trenaunay (klih-PEL tray-no-NAY) syndrome ― also called KTS ― is a rare disorder found at birth (congenital) involving problems in the development of certain blood vessels, soft tissues (such as skin and muscles), bones and sometimes the lymphatic system.
Why is fetal circulation important?
Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta. Waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetus are sent back through the umbilical cord and placenta to the mother’s circulation to be eliminated.
Which of the following embryonic veins does the hepatic portal vein develop from?
vitelline venous system
The hepatic veins originate from the vitelline venous system. The cranial component of the left vitelline vein initially involutes, shunting all returning blood to the heart through the cranial component of the right vitelline vein, known as the embryonic common hepatic vein.
How do you test for Klippel-Trenaunay?
Some tests include:
- Duplex ultrasound scanning. This test uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of blood vessels and blood flow.
- MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography.
- CT scan or CT angiography.
- Contrast venography.
- Coagulation studies.
- Genetic studies.
What causes cloves syndrome?
CLOVES syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder caused by a somatic (body cell) mutation in a gene known as PIK3CA. Mutations in this growth regulatory gene result in two sets of cells within the body (mosaic status): those with the mutation and those without the mutation.
What are the 3 shunts in fetal circulation?
Three shunts in the fetal circulation
- Ductus arteriosus. protects lungs against circulatory overload. allows the right ventricle to strengthen.
- Ductus venosus. fetal blood vessel connecting the umbilical vein to the IVC.
- Foramen ovale. shunts highly oxygenated blood from right atrium to left atrium.
What happens to fetal circulation after birth?
The umbilical cord is clamped and the baby no longer receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother. With the first breaths of air, the lungs start to expand and the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale both close. The baby’s circulation and blood flow through the heart now function like an adult’s.
What is fetal blood circulation?
The fetal circulation system is distinctly different from adult circulation. This intricate system allows the fetus to receive oxygenated blood and nutrients from the placenta. It is comprised of the blood vessels in the placenta and the umbilical cord, which contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein.
What are the three sets of paired veins present in the early embryonic stage of vertebrae?
In the 4-5 week embryo there are 3 pair of symmetric cardinal veins: anterior (drain the head region), posterior (drain the rest of the body) and common (a short segment of the combined anterior and posterior veins formed before entering the sinus venosus).
Is Klippel-Trenaunay life threatening?
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare congenital syndrome of vascular malformations and soft tissue and bone hypertrophy. Vascular malformations can affect multiple organ systems. Involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is uncommon in KTS, but it can be a source of life-threatening bleeding.
Can Klippel-Trenaunay be treated?
There is no cure for KTS. Treatment is symptomatic. Laser surgery can diminish or erase some skin lesions. Surgery may correct discrepancies in limb size, but orthopedic devices may be more appropriate.