Does hypercalcemia cause depression?
Hypercalcemia can interfere with how your brain works, resulting in confusion, lethargy and fatigue. It can also cause depression.
Why does hypercalcemia depress the nervous system?
High Ca2+ levels (hypercalcemia) can block sodium movement through voltage-gated sodium channels, causing reduced depolarization and impaired action potential generation. This explains the fatigue, cognitive impairments, muscle weakness, low muscle tone, and sluggish reflexes in muscle groups during hypercalcemia.
What is the mechanism of hypercalcaemia of malignancy?
The pathophysiology of hypercalcemia of malignancy is mainly through three mechanisms: excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), bony metastasis with the release of osteoclast activating factors, and production of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol).
What is the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem. It results when the entry of calcium into the circulation exceeds the excretion of calcium into the urine or deposition in bone. This occurs when there is accelerated bone resorption, excessive gastrointestinal absorption, or decreased renal excretion of calcium.
Why does hypocalcemia cause depression?
You may notice that you are depressed, or more irritable if you have mildly low hypocalcemia. With severely lowered blood calcium levels, you may become confused or disoriented. Your heart muscle may contract irregularly due to the electrolyte disturbance.
Does calcium cause depression?
The effects of high calcium levels can dramatically decrease your quality of life. For example, elevated calcium levels can worsen the quality of sleep and increase anxiety, depression, fatigue, and bone pain. High calcium levels can also decrease concentration, learning, and memory.
Why does hypocalcemia cause increased excitability?
Hypocalcemia causes increased neuromuscular excitability by decreasing the threshold needed for the activation of neurons. As a result, neurons become unstable and fire spontaneous action potentials that trigger the involuntary contraction of the muscles, which eventually leads to tetany.
Why does hypercalcemia cause decreased neuromuscular excitability?
The high levels of calcium ions decrease the neuron membrane permeability to sodium ions, thus decreasing excitability, which leads to hypotonicity of smooth and striated muscle. This explains the fatigue, muscle weakness, low tone and sluggish reflexes in muscle groups.
What is high calcium of malignancy?
Hypercalcemia of malignancy is a common finding typically in patients with advanced stage cancers. Hypercalcemia of malignancy usually presents with markedly elevated calcium levels and patients are therefore usually severely symptomatic.
Can anorexia cause high calcium levels?
Hypercalcemia, or high blood calcium, may be caused by a wide variety of conditions and diseases including: Adrenal gland failure. Anorexia.
What is the pathophysiology of hypercalcemia of malignancy?
The pathophysiology of hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM) is complex. Increased bone resorption is involved in most cases caused either by extensive local bone destruction or by humoral factors. Tumor extracts from patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) often contain PTH-like bioactivity.
What is the most common cause of hypercalcemia?
More than 90% of the cases of hypercalcemia are due to primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy-induced hypercalcemia. Malignancy remains the most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospitalized patients.
What is humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy?
Excessive secretion of PTHrP is the most common cause of hypercalcemia of malignancy. It is also known as humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) and accounts for about 80% of the cases.
What are the possible complications of hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcemia can lead to peptic ulcer disease and pancreatitis. Bones: Bone related complications like bone pain. Hypercalcemia can lead to osteoporosis, osteomalacia, arthritis and pathological fractures. Stones: Renal stones causing pain.